If we go to the scientific paper, we read the following:
>Despite their large multi-seat public latrines with washing facilities, sewer systems, sanitation legislation, fountains and piped drinking water from aqueducts, we see the widespread presence of whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentery. This would suggest that the public sanitation measures were insufficient to protect the population from parasites spread by fecal contamination.
Yet worms are largely spread through what larger organisms ingest.
>Ectoparasites such as fleas, head lice, body lice, pubic lice and bed bugs were also present, and delousing combs have been found.
They're tough creatures and even current toilets are absolutely irrelevant against them.
>The evidence fails to demonstrate that the Roman culture of regular bathing in the public baths reduced the prevalence of these parasites. Fish tapeworm was noted to be widely present, and was more common than in Bronze and Iron Age Europe. It is possible that the Roman enthusiasm for fermented, uncooked fish sauce (garum) may have facilitated the spread of this helminth.
We have our culprit here. For this one, nothing to do with toilets!
And now let's look at the other parasites. i went to wiki for quick notes.
>Ascaris lumbricoides, a roundworm, infects humans via the fecal-oral route.
>When an embryonated egg is ingested, a Rhabditiform larva hatches then penetrates the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and enters the blood stream. From there, it is carried to the liver and heart, and enters pulmonary circulation to break free in the alveoli, where it grows and molts. In three weeks, the larva passes from the respiratory system to be coughed up, swallowed, and thus reaches the small intestine, where it matures to an adult male or female worm. Fertilization can now occur and the female produces as many as 200,000 eggs per day for 12–18 months. These fertilized eggs become infectious after two weeks in soil; they can persist in soil for 10 years or more.
Right. Put feces on your face, lick it or touch your unclean fingers, and you're good to go. The only way the toilets could be held responsible here would be because of a lack of people cleaning their hands or any surface where shit landed. Obviously Romans didn't care about touching someone else' drying feces or sitting where crap was splashed all around the pee hole.
>The female T. trichiura produces 2,000–10,000 single-celled eggs per day. Eggs are deposited from human feces to soil where, after two to three weeks, they become embryonated and enter the "infective" stage. These embryonated infective eggs are ingested and hatch in the human small intestine exploiting the intestinal microflora as hatching stimulus.
Weeks before the eggs become infectious. In other words, nothing to do with fecal matter present on the latrines, but more to do with grown food not being properly cleaned and also exposed to the manure.
So you could have the cleanest toilets in the world, it would not change a thing about the infection method if you were not clean enough about how you grew your own food.
As for Entamoeba histolytica, the lack of proper cleaning of surfaces in shared spaces would allow for the spreading of this parasite.
Yet the scientific paper reminds the reader that the Romans installed
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