I would assume TNG phasers use something like aim assist.
>No one could possibly achieve proficiency with this sort of gun without huge amounts of practice, thus compensating for its horrible ergonomics through sheer determination.
Maybe that's a feature and not a bug. Make a terribly designed gun that's hard to aim and then drill rigorously to learn to use them so that if non Star Fleet persons got a hold of them they couldn't hit anything for shit. TNG
universe Federation is just retarded enough to do something like that.